Evolusie of Skepping

The enhanced detail of plate tectonic processes provided by these new data did not, however, result in such a dramatic advance as would have been expected. Hot spots and mantle plumes were by then firmly established concepts in explaining the observed linear chains of volcanic islands and in providing a super-deep mantle frame of reference the hotspot reference frame that was independent of plate motions at the surface. Accumulating scientific evidence over half a decade and recent GPS-derived absolute plate motions suggest that both the mantle plume frame of reference and the age dependence along volcanic lineaments are not as strong as once believed. This article investigates the complex tectono-magmatic processes involved in the opening of the Central, Equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean and asks the simple question of whether there is an alternative tectonic model to explain the phenomena seen in the satellite gravity field. The case is made that hot spots or mantle plumes are not necessarily required to explain the volcanic lineaments and that most, if not all, features result from deformational processes during the evolution of the plates. Such a model has a range of implications which, hopefully, can be tested to further refine the model. To evaluate and develop the proposed model the resolution of the satellite gravity needs to be increased to about 10 km. The need for such resolution is illustrated in this study and will significantly improve our understanding of oceanic crust-forming processes, particularly the role of magmatism and intra-plate deformation, 2.

Past Episodes

Stansfield Macmillan, , pp. All quotations are consecutive, except where noted. The quotations are presented here in the order in which they appear in the book; since Patton quotes them out of order, I have inserted notes to help keep track of them. Geologists now assume that most of the water in the oceans was produced by volcanic outgassings. There are now approximately active volcanoes and about 10, dormant ones. Six hundred volcanoes comparable to Paricutin could account for the present oceans in approximately 0.

The following, inevitably incomplete, introductory glossary of terms and concepts links to other topics discussed elsewhere on this site, as well as including general topics of interest such as well-known prehistoric animals.

These formations and therefore the river and community are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. This has been contended by the present day chief and council [oral history], is supported by documentation in the archives of the HBC [Hudson’s Bay Company], and was documented by Honigmann [ ] Cummins, The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, and sustainable regional development.

However, the activity pattern of Omushkego West Main Cree harvesters has changed much over the decades; contemporary harvesting involves numerous short trips of a few days’ duration instead of the traditional long trips. The town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1. It is in the James Bay drainage basin. It is in the Kenora District which is in the extreme north of Ontario. It is normal for the river to rise 1 or 2 metres.

Creation vs. Evolution

Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages.

Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb.

Magmatism in the South Atlantic traditionally attributed to hotspots and plumes eg at Tristan da Cunha can be explained by leakage from cracks that open as a result of changing stress in the plates.

British stages[ edit ] The Tremadoc corresponds to the modern Tremadocian. The Floian corresponds to the lower Arenig; the Arenig continues until the early Darriwilian, subsuming the Dapingian. The Llanvirn occupies the rest of the Darriwilian, and terminates with it at the base of the Late Ordovician. The Sandbian represents the first half of the Caradoc; the Caradoc ends in the mid-Katian, and the Ashgill represents the last half of the Katian, plus the Hirnantian.

Gondwana started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole. Early in the Ordovician, the continents of Laurentia in present-day North America , Siberia , and Baltica present-day northern Europe were still independent continents since the break-up of the supercontinent Pannotia earlier , but Baltica began to move towards Laurentia later in the period, causing the Iapetus Ocean between them to shrink. The small continent Avalonia separated from Gondwana and began to move north towards Baltica and Laurentia, opening the Rheic Ocean between Gondwana and Avalonia.

The Taconic orogeny , a major mountain-building episode, was well under way in Cambrian times. In the early and middle Ordovician, temperatures were mild, but at the beginning of the Late Ordovician, from to Ma, volcanoes along the margin of the Iapetus Ocean spewed massive amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere, turning the planet into a hothouse.

Initially, sea levels were high, but as Gondwana moved south, ice accumulated into glaciers and sea levels dropped. At first, low-lying sea beds increased diversity, but later glaciation led to mass extinctions as the seas drained and continental shelves became dry land. During the Ordovician, in fact during the Tremadocian, marine transgressions worldwide were the greatest for which evidence is preserved.

These volcanic island arcs eventually collided with proto North America to form the Appalachian mountains.

Ordovician

British stages[ edit ] The Tremadoc corresponds to the modern Tremadocian. The Floian corresponds to the lower Arenig; the Arenig continues until the early Darriwilian, subsuming the Dapingian. The Llanvirn occupies the rest of the Darriwilian, and terminates with it at the base of the Late Ordovician. The Sandbian represents the first half of the Caradoc; the Caradoc ends in the mid-Katian, and the Ashgill represents the last half of the Katian, plus the Hirnantian.

Gondwana started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole.

The Attawapiskat First Nation (/ ˌ æ t ə ˈ w ɑː p ɪ s k æ t / Cree: ᐋᐦᑕᐙᐱᐢᑲᑐᐎ ᐃᓂᓂᐧᐊᐠ Āhtawāpiskatowi ininiwak, “People of the parting of the rocks”; unpointed: ᐊᑕᐗᐱᐢᑲᑐᐎ ᐃᓂᓂᐧᐊᐠ) is an isolated First Nation located in Kenora District in northern Ontario, Canada, at .

These formations and therefore the river and community are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, and sustainable regional development. Their results published in , showed “that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some km2.

Although the First Nations control only km2 0. The town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1. It is in the James Bay drainage basin. It is in the Kenora District which is in the extreme north of Ontario. It is normal for the river to rise 1 or 2 metres. The community has experienced partial and complete flooding. It is thought to have formed about million years ago in the Jurassic period when the North American Plate moved westward over a centre of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot , also referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.

ActionBioscience

USGS Paleontology glossary Acritarch microscopic organic structure from any of a number of organisms; common during the Proterozoic. Adaptive radiation, evolutionary radiation the rapid expansion and diversification of a group of organisms as they fill unoccupied ecological niches , evolving into new species. Age of Mammals term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Cenozoic era, beginning with the Paleocene Epoch when following the K—T end Cretaceous mass extinction , mammals underwent a huge evolutionary radiation and thus replaced reptiles as the dominant life on Earth.

The Age of Mammals has in turn been replaced by the Anthropocene or Age of Man, Holocene when humans dominate every conceivable environment and most other life forms apart from weedy species are suffering a mass extinction Yes, I know humans are also mammals, so technically speaking this is still the Age of Mammals, but I tend to think of the Age of Mammals as a period of flourishing biodiversity. MAK Age of Reptiles term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Permian through to Cretaceous periods but obviously originating with Victorian discoveries of “antediluvian monsters” , when reptiles first mammal-like reptiles , then archosaurs and marine reptiles were the dominant life on Earth.

Paleontologist Edwin Colbert wrote a popular intelligent layperson book with the same title.

I looked and looked for the methods explained and the data summarized in one place that leads scientists to confidence in the age of the earth.

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.

Isochron Dating

See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.

How radiometric dating works in general: Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is .

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.

At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates.

The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists. Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records.

Attawapiskat First Nation

Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also.

Join Origins host, Ray Heiple as he welcomes, Dr. Georgia Purdom for, “Natural Selection is not evolution.” The engine that drives Darwinian evolution is natural selection.

Although they also posed new questions, the thousands of satellite photographs brought back from the Moon have permitted us to map its surface with greater accuracy than Earth could be mapped a few decades ago. We now have over kg of rocks from nine places on the Moon, rocks that have been analyzed by hundreds of scientists from many different countries. Data from a variety of experiments have revealed much about the Moon’s deep interior. As it turns out, the Moon is truly a whole new world, with rocks and surface features that provide a record of events that occurred during the first billion years of the solar system.

This record is not preserved on Earth because all rocks formed during the first million years of Earth’s history were recycled back into the interior. The importance of the Moon in studying the principles of geology is that it provides an insight into the basic mechanics of planetary evolution and events that occurred early in the solar system. Much of the knowledge we have of how planets are born and of the events that transpired during the early part of their histories has been gained from studies of the Moon.

Carbon-14 Radioactive Dating Worked Example